CARTA Glossary

Displaying 1 - 43 of 43 defined words for "Extraordinary Variations of the Human Mind: Lessons for Anthropogeny". To see all CARTA defined words, please view the complete glossary.

Word Definition Related Vocabulary
7q11.23 Duplication Syndrome A developmental disorder resulting from a duplication of approximately 25 genes on chromosome 7.
Amusia

The inability to recognize musical tones or to reproduce them (tone deafness).

Anomaly

Something that deviates from what is standard, normal, or expected.

Anxiety

A nervous disorder characterized by a state of excessive uneasiness and apprehension.

Autism

A mental condition, present from early childhood, characterized by difficulty in communicating and forming relationships with other people and in using language and abstract concepts.

Autism spectrum disorder

A range of conditions characterized by challenges with social skills, repetitive behaviors, speech, and nonverbal communication.

Autobiography

An account of a person’s life written by that person.

Behavior

The way in which one acts or conducts oneself, especially toward others.

Chromosome

Discrete strands of tightly packaged chromatin.

Cognition

The mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses.

Congenital

A disease or physical abnormality present from birth.

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid. The molecule of inheritance, which consists of sequences of the four nucleotide bases: Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, and Cytosine.

Gene

A DNA sequence which encodes a specific function.

Genius

A person who is exceptionally intelligent or creative, either generally or in some particular respect.

Genome

The totality of DNA in a cell. Also refers to the DNA sequence that typifies an individual or species.

Genotype

The two alleles at one or more diploid loci.

Hemideletion

One of two paired chromosomes is affected by a deletion. The other chromosome is intact. 

Idiosyncrasy

A mode of behavior or way of thought peculiar to an individual.

Intuition

A thing that one knows or considers likely from instinctive feeling rather than conscious reasoning.

Memory

The faculty by which the mind stores and remembers information.

Mind

The element of an individual that enables them to be aware of the world and their experiences, to think, and to feel; the faculty of consciousness and thought. 

Mutation

Change in a DNA or RNA sequence.

Nervous System

The network of nerve cells and fibers that transmits nerve impulses between parts of the body.

Neural circuit

A neural circuit is a functional entity of interconnected neurons that is able to regulate its own activity using a feedback loop.

Neurobiology

The study of the morphology, behavior, and other qualities of the nervous system.

Neurogenetics

The study of the role of genetics in the development and function of the nervous system.

Neurological

Relating to the anatomy, functions, and organic disorders of nerves and the nervous system.

Neuron

A specialized cell that transmits nerve impulses.

Neuropsychology

The study of the relationship between behavior, emotion, and cognition and brain function.

Neurotypical

Not displaying or characterized by autistic or other neurologically atypical patterns of thought or behavior.

Never

A bundle of fibers that transmits impulses of sensation to the brain or spinal cord, and impulses from these to the muscles and organs.

Perciption

The ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the senses.

Phenotype

Observable traits of an organism that result from interactions between genes and environment during development.

Plasticity

The adaptability of an organism to changes in its environment or differences between its various habitats.

Polymorphism

The “many forms,” or genetic variants, of a single gene that exist and are maintained in a population at a frequency of 1% or higher.

Prodigy

A person, especially a young one, endowed with exceptional qualities or abilities.

Savant

A person affected with a mental disability who exhibits exceptional skill or brilliance in some limited field.

Savant Syndrome

is a loose term that refers to people who have a combination of significant cognitive difficulties, often stemming from autism, and profound skills.

Sequencing

Reading the order of nucleotides in DNA.

Social

Relating to society or its organization.

Synaesthesia

A condition in which one type of stimulation evokes the sensation of another.

Variant

DNA that differs among groups studied.

Williams Syndrome

A genetic condition characterized by medical problems, including cardiovascular disease, developmental delays, and learning challenges.  These often occur side by side with striking verbal abilities, highly social personalities and an affinity for music.  1 in 10,000 people worldwide are affected and occurs equally in males and females and in every culture. Children with Williams syndrome tend to be social, friendly and endearing.