Chronic intake of fermented floral nectar by wild treeshrews.

Bibliographic Collection: 
MOCA Reference, APE
Publication Type: Journal Article
Authors: Wiens, Frank; Zitzmann, Annette; Lachance, Marc-André; Yegles, Michel; Pragst, Fritz; Wurst, Friedrich M; von Holst, Dietrich; Guan, Saw Leng; Spanagel, Rainer
Year of Publication: 2008
Journal: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Volume: 105
Issue: 30
Pagination: 10426-31
Date Published: 2008 Jul 29
Publication Language: eng
ISSN: 1091-6490
Keywords: Alcohol Drinking, Alcoholic Intoxication, Alcohols, Animals, Biomarkers, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Female, Fermentation, Flowers, Hair, Male, Mammals, Pollen, Pollination, Tupaiidae

For humans alcohol consumption often has devastating consequences. Wild mammals may also be behaviorally and physiologically challenged by alcohol in their food. Here, we provide a detailed account of chronic alcohol intake by mammals as part of a coevolved relationship with a plant. We discovered that seven mammalian species in a West Malaysian rainforest consume alcoholic nectar daily from flower buds of the bertam palm (Eugeissona tristis), which they pollinate. The 3.8% maximum alcohol concentration (mean: 0.6%; median: 0.5%) that we recorded is among the highest ever reported in a natural food. Nectar high in alcohol is facilitated by specialized flower buds that harbor a fermenting yeast community, including several species new to science. Pentailed treeshrews (Ptilocercus lowii) frequently consume alcohol doses from the inflorescences that would intoxicate humans. Yet, the flower-visiting mammals showed no signs of intoxication. Analysis of an alcohol metabolite (ethyl glucuronide) in their hair yielded concentrations higher than those in humans with similarly high alcohol intake. The pentailed treeshrew is considered a living model for extinct mammals representing the stock from which all extinct and living treeshrews and primates radiated. Therefore, we hypothesize that moderate to high alcohol intake was present early on in the evolution of these closely related lineages. It is yet unclear to what extent treeshrews benefit from ingested alcohol per se and how they mitigate the risk of continuous high blood alcohol concentrations.

DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0801628105
Alternate Journal: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
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