Long-term patterns of sleeping site use in wild saddleback (Saguinus fuscicollis) and mustached tamarins (S. mystax): effects of foraging, thermoregulation, predation, and resource defense constraints.
Sleeping sites are an important aspect of an animal's ecology given the length of time that they spend in them. The sleep ecology of wild saddleback and mustached tamarins is examined using a long-term data set covering three mixed-species troops and 1,300+ tamarin nights. Seasonal changes in photoperiod accounted for a significant amount of variation in sleeping site entry and exit times. Time of exit was more closely correlated with sunrise than time of entry was with sunset. Both species entered their sleeping sites when light levels were significantly higher than when they left them in the morning. Troops of both species used >80 individual sites, the majority being used once. Mustached tamarins never used the same site for more than two consecutive nights, but saddlebacks reused the same site for up to four consecutive nights. Mustached tamarins slept at significantly greater heights than saddleback tamarins. There were consistent interspecific differences in the types of sites used. Neither the presence of infants, season, nor rainfall affected the types or heights of sites chosen. Sleeping sites were located in the central area of exclusive use more often than expected, and their position with respect to fruiting trees indicated a strategy closer to that of a multiple central place forager than a central place forager. These findings are discussed in light of species ecology, with particular reference to predation risk, which is indicated as the major factor influencing the pattern of sleeping site use in these species.