Responses of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) to different conditions of mirror-image stimulation
Group-living brown capuchins were given mirror-image stimulation as follows: (1) mirror 1 m away; (2) mirror attached to the cage-mesh; (3) angled mirrors creating a deflected image; (4) small mirror in the cage; and (5) small, transportable mirrors. The subjects were initially interested in the mirrors in each condition, but they generally habituated to them over the course of repeated presentations. Control (non-reflective) objects were attended to less than mirrors. Facial expressions occurred mostly in Condition 2, lateral and vertical head movements in Condition 3, reaching behind the mirror in Condition 2, looking obliquely into the mirror in Conditions 4 and 5. Despite these diverse conditions of exposure to mirrors, lasting for a total of over three months, no behaviours suggesting self-recognition were seen in the monkeys.