Bibliographic Collection: 
MOCA Reference, APE
Publication Type: Journal Article
Authors: Baughman, Robert P; Lower, Elyse E; du Bois, Roland M
Year of Publication: 2003
Journal: Lancet
Volume: 361
Issue: 9363
Pagination: 1111-8
Date Published: 2003 Mar 29
Publication Language: eng
ISSN: 0140-6736
Keywords: Adrenal Cortex Hormones, African Continental Ancestry Group, European Continental Ancestry Group, Genes, MHC Class II, Humans, Immunosuppressive Agents, Macrophage Activation, Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A, Polymorphism, Genetic, Sarcoidosis, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha

There have been several new insights into the cause and treatment of sarcoidosis. Studies of genetic variation have shown that specific genetic polymorphisms are associated with increased risk of disease or affect disease presentation. These polymorphisms include variation of MHC and cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF). Not all investigators have come to the same conclusion, suggesting an interaction of various factors, including the patient's ethnic origin. Treatment of sarcoidosis varies considerably. Patients with symptomatic disease for more than 2-5 years have been of particular interest. Corticosteroids remain the standard of care in such cases, but immunosuppressive drugs have proved steroid-sparing in many patients. New agents, including pentoxifylline, thalidomide, and infliximab have proved useful in selected cases. The effectiveness of these agents seems to lie in their ability to block TNF, especially in the treatment of chronic disease.

DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)12888-7
Alternate Journal: Lancet
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