CDH12 (cadherin 12, type 2 (N-cadherin 2) )

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Human Uniqueness Compared to "Great Apes": 
Likely Difference
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Cadherin 12 is an integral membrane protein that mediates calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion specifically in the brain. Changes in CDH12 have been associated with schizophrenia and violent suicide victims. Array comparative genomic hybridization indicates that CDH12 is present in the human genome in higher copy number than any other primate. Implications for this change in copy number are unknown.


Timing of appearance of the difference in the Hominin Lineage as a defined date or a lineage separation event. The point in time associated with lineage separation events may change in the future as the scientific community agrees upon better time estimates. Lineage separation events are defined in 2017 as:

  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and old world monkeys was 25,000 - 30,000 thousand (25 - 30 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and chimpanzees was 6,000 - 8,000 thousand (6 - 8 million) years ago
  • the emergence of the genus Homo was 2,000 thousand (2 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and neanderthals was 500 thousand years ago
  • the common ancestor of modern humans was 100 - 300 thousand years ago

Definite Appearance: 
6,000 thousand years ago
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Genetics Topic Attributes
Gene symbols follow the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee standard.
Gene Symbol Type of Human-Specific Changes
CDH12 Copy Number Changes


  1. Identification of human specific gene duplications relative to other primates by array CGH and quantitative PCR., Armengol, Gemma, Knuutila Sakari, Lozano Juan-José, Madrigal Irene, and Caballín María-Rosa , Genomics, 2010 Apr, Volume 95, Issue 4, p.203-9, (2010)
  2. Genetic utility of broadly defined bipolar schizoaffective disorder as a diagnostic concept., Hamshere, M L., Green E K., Jones I R., Jones L, Moskvina V, Kirov G, Grozeva D, Nikolov I, Vukcevic D, Caesar S, et al. , Br J Psychiatry, 2009 Jul, Volume 195, Issue 1, p.23-9, (2009)
  3. Gene expression profiling of post-mortem orbitofrontal cortex in violent suicide victims., Thalmeier, Andreas, Dickmann Martin, Giegling Ina, Schneider Barbara, Hartmann Annette M., Maurer Konrad, Schnabel Axel, Kauert Gerold, Möller Hans-Jürgen, and Rujescu Dan , Int J Neuropsychopharmacol, 2008 Mar, Volume 11, Issue 2, p.217-28, (2008)
  4. Lineage-specific gene duplication and loss in human and great ape evolution., Fortna, A., Kim Y., MacLaren E., Marshall K., Hahn G., Meltesen L., Brenton M., Hink R., Burgers S., Hernandez-Boussard T., et al. , PLoS Biol, 07/2004, Volume 2, Issue 7, p.E207, (2004)