CHRM3 (Cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 3)

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Human Uniqueness Compared to "Great Apes": 
Likely Difference
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Cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 3 (CHRM3) is a G protein coupled receptor that is involved in the control of smooth muscle contraction. In humans, a L1HS transposon insertion has created a novel transcript that is the only CHRM3 transcript to be expressed in placenta. The significance of this new transcript is as of yet is unknown.


Timing of appearance of the difference in the Hominin Lineage as a defined date or a lineage separation event. The point in time associated with lineage separation events may change in the future as the scientific community agrees upon better time estimates. Lineage separation events are defined in 2017 as:

  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and old world monkeys was 25,000 - 30,000 thousand (25 - 30 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and chimpanzees was 6,000 - 8,000 thousand (6 - 8 million) years ago
  • the emergence of the genus Homo was 2,000 thousand (2 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and neanderthals was 500 thousand years ago
  • the common ancestor of modern humans was 100 - 300 thousand years ago

Definite Appearance: 
6,000 thousand years ago
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Genetics Topic Attributes
Gene symbols follow the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee standard.
Gene Symbol Type of Human-Specific Changes
CHRM3 Alternate Splicing, Expression Pattern Change


  1. Identification of human-specific transcript variants induced by DNA insertions in the human genome., Kim, Dong Seon, and Hahn Yoonsoo , Bioinformatics, 2011 Jan 1, Volume 27, Issue 1, p.14-21, (2011)
  2. Gain of new exons and promoters by lineage-specific transposable elements-integration and conservation event on CHRM3 gene., Huh, Jae-Won, Kim Young-Hyun, Lee Sang-Rae, Kim Hyoungwoo, Kim Dae-Soo, Kim Heui-Soo, Kang Han-Seok, and Chang Kyu-Tae , Mol Cells, 2009 Aug 31, Volume 28, Issue 2, p.111-7, (2009)