End Stage Renal Disease

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End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD), also called chronic kidney failure (CKF) is a complete failure or near complete loss of the kidney to function at a level that will maintain day to day life. ESRD usually occurs as chronic renal failure and worsens to the point where the kidney functions at less than 10% of its normal ability and death occurs from the accumulation of fluids and waste products in the body. In the US alone, more than 400,000 people are on long term dialysis and more than 20,000 people have had life saving kidney transplantation due to CKF. Poorly controlled diabetes, high blood pressure and chronic glomerulonephritis are common causes of ESRD. All cases of CKF eventually lead to mortality.

Although the chimpanzee kidney is known to be very similar to the human kidney in anatomy and physiology, incidence of CKF are not well established. Cases of ESRD in the chimpanzee would presumably be similar due to the known similarity of the chimpanzee kidney risk factors and primary diseases that are associated with CKF.


Timing of appearance of the difference in the Hominin Lineage as a defined date or a lineage separation event. The point in time associated with lineage separation events may change in the future as the scientific community agrees upon better time estimates. Lineage separation events are defined in 2017 as:

  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and old world monkeys was 25,000 - 30,000 thousand (25 - 30 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and chimpanzees was 6,000 - 8,000 thousand (6 - 8 million) years ago
  • the emergence of the genus Homo was 2,000 thousand (2 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and neanderthals was 500 thousand years ago
  • the common ancestor of modern humans was 100 - 300 thousand years ago

Possible Appearance: 
100 thousand years ago
Probable Appearance: 
100 thousand years ago
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