GADD45G (Growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45 gamma)

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True   Likely   Speculative
Human Uniqueness Compared to "Great Apes": 
Likely Difference
Human Universality: 
Individual Universal (All Individuals Everywhere)
MOCA Domain: 
MOCA Topic Authors: 

Growth Arrest and DNA-Damage-Inducible, Gamma (GADD45g) is a tumor suppressor important in DNA demethylation and has been shown to be important to cognition. GADD45G is abnormally expressed in individuals with neurodevelopmental, neurological, and psychiatric disorders. A human specific 3 kb deletion of a forebrain specific enhancer for GADD45G leading to the hypothesis that the loss may be involved in expansion of the human forebrain.


Timing of appearance of the difference in the Hominin Lineage as a defined date or a lineage separation event. The point in time associated with lineage separation events may change in the future as the scientific community agrees upon better time estimates. Lineage separation events are defined in 2017 as:

  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and old world monkeys was 25,000 - 30,000 thousand (25 - 30 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and chimpanzees was 6,000 - 8,000 thousand (6 - 8 million) years ago
  • the emergence of the genus Homo was 2,000 thousand (2 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and neanderthals was 500 thousand years ago
  • the common ancestor of modern humans was 100 - 300 thousand years ago

Definite Appearance (Lineage Separation Event): 
Genetics Topic Attributes
Gene symbols follow the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee standard.
Type of Human-Specific Changes
Expression Pattern Change


  1. Gadd45b knockout mice exhibit selective deficits in hippocampus-dependent long-term memory., Leach, P. T., Poplawski S. G., Kenney J. W., Hoffman B., Liebermann D. A., Abel T., and Gould T. J. , Learn Mem, 2012, Volume 19, Issue 8, p.319-24, (2012)
  2. Human-specific loss of regulatory DNA and the evolution of human-specific traits., McLean, Cory Y., Reno Philip L., Pollen Alex A., Bassan Abraham I., Capellini Terence D., Guenther Catherine, Indjeian Vahan B., Lim Xinhong, Menke Douglas B., Schaar Bruce T., et al. , Nature, 2011 Mar 10, Volume 471, Issue 7337, p.216-9, (2011)