HAR1 (human accelerated region 1)
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Human Accelerated Regions 1 (HAR1) is part of the cis-antisense RNA gene pair HAR1F and HAR1R, which are expressed in neurons during human embryonic cortical development and adult brain. HAR1 is conserved in amniotes as far back as frogs, but 18 base pair substitutions have occurred specifically in the human lineage leading to a secondary structure change in HAR1F that is unique to humans. HAR1F co-expresses with reelin, a protein important to the proper layering of the human cortex, suggesting an important role for HAR1 in human brain development. In addition, HAR1 expression is repressed by REST, and it has been hypothesized that changes in HAR1 expression may contribute to Huntington’s disease phenotypes.
Mutations in Human Accelerated Regions Disrupt Cognition and Social Behavior, , CellCell, 10/6/2016, Issue 167, (2016)
Human accelerated region 1 noncoding RNA is repressed by REST in Huntington's disease., , Physiol Genomics, 2010 May, Volume 41, Issue 3, p.269-74, (2010)
Distinctive structures between chimpanzee and human in a brain noncoding RNA., , RNA, 2008 Jul, Volume 14, Issue 7, p.1270-5, (2008)
An RNA gene expressed during cortical development evolved rapidly in humans., , Nature, 09/2006, Volume 443, Issue 7108, p.167-72, (2006)