Nephrolithiosis (Kidney Stones)
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Human Uniqueness Compared to "Great Apes":
Nephrolithiasis (Kidney stones) are very common in humans but have not been described in chimpanzees. The stones are usually composed mostly of calcium oxalate. However others can be composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate (especially in the setting of chronic urinary tract infections), or of uric acid or rarely cystine. Nephrolithiasis may also occur secondary to systemic disease affecting calcium metabolism, or in inherited genetic inborn errors of metabolism.
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