PDE4DIP (Phosphodiesterase 4D interacting protein)

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Human Uniqueness Compared to "Great Apes": 
Likely Difference
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Phosphodiesterase 4D Interacting Protein (PDE4DIP), also known as myomegalin, is a protein localized to the golgi and centrosome. It is an anchor protein for members of the cAMP pathway, PDE4D and PKA, and SANS, a protein important to the function of retinal photoreceptors. PDE4DIP has been proposed to play important roles in cognitive function, eye sight, and cardiac contraction. PDE4DIP has 2-4 more copies in the human genome than any other primate. The significance of these copies is unknown.


Timing of appearance of the difference in the Hominin Lineage as a defined date or a lineage separation event. The point in time associated with lineage separation events may change in the future as the scientific community agrees upon better time estimates. Lineage separation events are defined in 2017 as:

  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and old world monkeys was 25,000 - 30,000 thousand (25 - 30 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and chimpanzees was 6,000 - 8,000 thousand (6 - 8 million) years ago
  • the emergence of the genus Homo was 2,000 thousand (2 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and neanderthals was 500 thousand years ago
  • the common ancestor of modern humans was 100 - 300 thousand years ago

Probable Appearance: 
2,000 thousand years ago
Definite Appearance: 
6,000 thousand years ago
Genetics Topic Attributes
Gene symbols follow the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee standard.
Gene Symbol Type of Human-Specific Changes
PDE4DIP Copy Number Changes


  1. Direct interaction of the Usher syndrome 1G protein SANS and myomegalin in the retina., Overlack, N., Kilic D., Bauss K., Märker T., Kremer H., van Wijk E., and Wolfrum U. , Biochim Biophys Acta, 10/2011, Volume 1813, Issue 10, p.1883-92, (2011)
  2. Myomegalin is a novel A-kinase anchoring protein involved in the phosphorylation of cardiac myosin binding protein C., Uys, G. M., Ramburan A., Loos B., Kinnear C. J., Korkie L. J., Mouton J., Riedemann J., and Moolman-Smook J. C. , BMC Cell Biol, Volume 12, p.18, (2011)
  3. Diversity of human copy number variation and multicopy genes., Sudmant, Peter H., Kitzman Jacob O., Antonacci Francesca, Alkan Can, Malig Maika, Tsalenko Anya, Sampas Nick, Bruhn Laurakay, Shendure Jay, and Eichler Evan E. , Science, 10/2010, Volume 330, Issue 6004, p.641-6, (2010)
  4. Identification of human specific gene duplications relative to other primates by array CGH and quantitative PCR., Armengol, Gemma, Knuutila Sakari, Lozano Juan-José, Madrigal Irene, and Caballín María-Rosa , Genomics, 2010 Apr, Volume 95, Issue 4, p.203-9, (2010)
  5. A genome-wide comparison of recent chimpanzee and human segmental duplications., Cheng, Ze, Ventura Mario, She Xinwei, Khaitovich Philipp, Graves Tina, Osoegawa Kazutoyo, Church Deanna, DeJong Pieter, Wilson Richard K., Pääbo Svante, et al. , Nature, 09/2005, Volume 437, Issue 7055, p.88-93, (2005)
  6. Lineage-specific gene duplication and loss in human and great ape evolution., Fortna, A., Kim Y., MacLaren E., Marshall K., Hahn G., Meltesen L., Brenton M., Hink R., Burgers S., Hernandez-Boussard T., et al. , PLoS Biol, 07/2004, Volume 2, Issue 7, p.E207, (2004)
  7. Myomegalin is a novel protein of the golgi/centrosome that interacts with a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase., Verde, I, Pahlke G, Salanova M, Zhang G, Wang S, Coletti D, Onuffer J, Jin S L., and Conti M , J Biol Chem, 04/2001, Volume 276, Issue 14, p.11189-98, (2001)