Symbolic Representation of Abstract Concepts

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Human Uniqueness Compared to "Great Apes": 
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Related MOCA Topics
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Topic Certainty
Arbitrary Reference Likely
Art True
Moral Sense Speculative
Optimism Bias Likely


  1. A Middle Palaeolithic incised bear bone from the Dziadowa Skała Cave, Poland: the oldest marked object north of the Carpathian Mountains, Płonka, Tomasz, Wiśniewski Andrzej, Marciszak Adrian, Ziółkowski Grzegorz, Lipecki Grzegorz, Diakowski Marcin, and Serwatka Kamil , Journal of Archaeological Science, 2024/06/01/, Volume 166, p.105971, (2024)
  2. Neuroimaging supports the representational nature of the earliest human engravings, E., Mellet, M. Salagnon, A. Majkić, S. Cremona, M. Joliot, G. Jobard, B. Mazoyer, N. Tzourio Mazoyer, and F. d'Errico , Royal Society Open Science, Volume 6, Issue 7, p.190086, (2019)
  3. Cross-Modality Information Transfer: A Hypothesis about the Relationship among Prehistoric Cave Paintings, Symbolic Thinking, and the Emergence of Language, Miyagawa, Shigeru, Lesure Cora, and Nóbrega Vitor A. , Frontiers in Psychology, 02/2018, Volume 9, p.115, (2018)