TBC1D3 (TBC domain family, member 3)

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True   Likely   Speculative
Human Uniqueness Compared to "Great Apes": 
Likely Difference
MOCA Domain: 
MOCA Topic Authors: 

TBC1 domain family member 1 (TBC1D3) is an oncogene that enhances the cellular response to epidermal growth factor. TBC1D3 is a primate specific protein that evolved ~25 million years ago, but has undergone a human lineage specific expansion to 8 copies. The implications of these copies are as of yet unknown.


Timing of appearance of the difference in the Hominin Lineage as a defined date or a lineage separation event. The point in time associated with lineage separation events may change in the future as the scientific community agrees upon better time estimates. Lineage separation events are defined in 2017 as:

  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and old world monkeys was 25,000 - 30,000 thousand (25 - 30 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and chimpanzees was 6,000 - 8,000 thousand (6 - 8 million) years ago
  • the emergence of the genus Homo was 2,000 thousand (2 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and neanderthals was 500 thousand years ago
  • the common ancestor of modern humans was 100 - 300 thousand years ago

Definite Appearance: 
6,000 thousand years ago
Genetics Topic Attributes
Gene symbols follow the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee standard.
Gene Symbol Type of Human-Specific Changes
TBC1D3 Copy Number Changes


  1. Human-specific genes may offer a unique window into human cell signaling., Stahl, Philip D., and Wainszelbaum Marisa J. , Sci Signal, 2009, Volume 2, Issue 89, p.pe59, (2009)