Movement causing a person or animal to get from point A to point B.
A unique physical position on a chromosome.
The oldest known stone tools consisting of 150 artifacts found in Lomekwi, Kenya, close to Lake Turkana. ~3.3 mya.
A DNA sequencing technology that generates reads that are typically longer than 10 kbp in length. To be distinguished from short read sequencing technology (eg. Illumina), which is typically 100-250 bp in length.
|Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)|
Typical length of life.
The first subdivision of the Paleolithic, or Stone Age. ~3.4 mya- 300 ky.
The part of the menstrual cycle between ovulation and menstruation.
|Menstrual cycle, Ovulation|
Thin-walled vessels (tubes) of the lymphatic system that are complementary to the cardiovascular system and are devoted to the movement of lymphatic fluid.
A substance required in relatively large amounts by living organisms: Fats, proteins, carbohydrates in an animal diet or chemical elements such as potassium, magnesium, calcium as required by plants.
Specialized immune cells involved in the detection, phagocytosis and destruction of bacteria and other harmful organisms. In addition, they can also present antigens to T cells and initiate inflammation by releasing molecules.
|Maintenance and Defense||
An organism’s way of maintaining its body and physiological homeostasis while also defending against parasites, pathogens, and internal crises (e.g. cancer).
|Major depression (clinical depression)||
A severe and persistent low mood, profound sadness, or a sense of despair lasting at least two weeks but usually much longer.
|Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)||
A set of closely linked polymorphic genes that code for cell surface proteins (MHC molecules) that assist the adaptive immune system in detection of foreign molecules.
|Gene, Immune system, Molecule, Protein|
A genotypic or phenotypic trait that is (or has become) more harmful than helpful in determining survival and reproductive success (in contrast to an adaptation, which is more helpful than harmful).
An infectious disease that affects humans and other animals and caused by single-celled organisms belonging to genus Plasmodium and transmitted by mosquitos (commonly female Anopheles mosquitos). Initial symptoms are flu-
|Anopheles Mosquitos, Genome, Hemoglobin, Infectious (disease), Jaundice, Plasmodium, Sickle Cell Trait|
A cancerous growth capable of invading normal tissues and growing in otherwise hostile environments.
|Marine isotope stage 5 (MIS 5)||
The geologic temperature record between 130,000-80,000 years ago.
The soft fatty substance in the cavities of bones that produces red and white blood cells and platelets.
The widespread and rapid loss of biodiversity. Five mass extinctions have been documented and human activity is causing the sixth.
|Mate guarding (humans)||
The retention of exclusive reproductive access to a mate by attempting to restrict the access of others and discouraging the mate from seeking other sexual opportunities.
An experimental paradigm in which the experimenter separates a mother rat or mouse from her offspring for some period of time (minutes to hours) to study the effects of maternal deprivation on offspring development.
The portion of reproductive effort (time and energy invested) in the form of achieving matings (sexual access).
|Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR)||
A protein kinase, which in humans is encoded by the MTOR gene.
|Medial Preoptic Area (MPOA)||
A region of the brain located in the anterior part of the hypothalamus that critically regulates care giving behavior.
|Medium Spiny Neurons||
A special type of GABAergic inhibitory cell representing 95% of neurons within the human striatum, a basal ganglia structure.
|Basal Ganglia (Brain)|
For most organisms, it is the pigment in skin and hair, but is also found in the iris of the eye, the inner ear, and some parts of the brain. Melanin is produced as three basic types: eumelanin, pheomelanin, and neuromelanin. The melanin in the skin is produced by melanocytes, which exist across human populations in similar concentration in their skin. However, the melanocytes in some populations produce variable amounts of melanin. This variation is likely due to the melanin’s property to absorb and dissipate UV radiation, protecting skin from harmful damage. UV exposure is associated with increased risk of malignant melanoma, a cancer of melanocytes.
The faculty by which the mind stores and remembers information.
An inflammation (swelling) of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord.
|Meningococcus (Neisseria meningitidis)||
A bacterium that can cause meningitis and meningococcemia, a life-threatening infection in the bloodstream (sepsis).
The time of life when female menstruation naturally and permanently ceases.
Relating to monthly ovulation or menses.
The process of representing and reasoning about the mental states, thought, and feelings of the self and others. Also known as Theory of Mind.
|Theory of Mind (ToM)|
A potent psychedelic found in the peyote cactus. Structurally similar to dopamine and norepinephrine and also activates serotonin receptors.
|Dopamine, Norepinephrine (noradrenaline), Peyote (Lophophora williamsii), Receptor|
The middle of the three primary germ layers formed in embryonic development and develops into the muscles of the cardiac and skeletal systems, the skeleton and connective tissue, blood vessels and cells, and some other internal organs such as the kidneys and gonads.
The rate at which fuels (such as sugars or fats) are broken down for the production of cellular energy.
The conversion of food into energy and the chemical building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and glycans as well as the elimination of metabolic wastes.
|Glycans, Lipid, Nucleic acid, Protein|
The process of using systems biology to understand microbes and their environment.
The totality of all organisms (microbes) that live on and in the body.
Microorganisms, such as bacteria, archaea, protists, fungi, and viruses, that are found in a particular environment.
A type of glia that functions as the primary innate immune cells of the central nervous system and are involved in brain development and maintenance. These cells are not of neuronal origin but rather migrate from the yolk sac to the brain during embryogenesis.
|Central nervous system (CNS), Embryogenesis, Glia (neuroglia)|
|Microlithic (Mode 5)||
A stone tool type consisting of small blades or points, called microliths, that were typically used in composite tools, such as an arrow point fastened to a haft. ~35 - 3 kya.
A chemical element or substance required in trace amounts for the normal growth and development of living organisms that the organism cannot synthesize itself.
A single-stranded non-coding RNA that silences RNA and is involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.
|Ribonucleic acid (RNA)|
|Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)||
A contagious and sometimes fatal viral respiratory sickness that can produce severe symptoms such as fever, cough, shortness of breath and in some cases death. The MERS virus originated in bats and was first reported affecting other species, camels and humans, in Saudi Arabia in 2012. Since then, it has been identified in many other countries, including the United States.
|Contagious (disease), Respiratory, Virus|
The second subdivision of the Paleolithic, or Stone Age and consist of use of prepared cores (Levallois Technique) and hafted tools and weapons. ~300 kya -30 kya.
A period of geological time (781-126,000 years ago). An important time for the diversification of hominins, including the emergence of Neanderthals and Homo sapiens.
Derived from the Greek word for “imitation” and is used in three different senses:
The element of an individual that enables them to be aware of the world and their experiences, to think, and to feel; the faculty of consciousness and thought.
|Mind Over Reality Transition (MORT)||
A proposed singular phase in hominid evolution in which maladaptive mortality salience and death anxiety were triggered by acquiring the capacity for Extended Theory of Mind, but were (in this one instance) tolerated by the simultaneous acquisition of Reality Denial in the same minds - allowing gene culture-evolution to fix both capacities in the resulting hominin lineage, at the neurobiological and genetic level.
|Mortality Salience, Reality Denial, Theory of Mind (ToM)|
The state of being conscious or aware.
A meditative practice centered around being present in the moment.
Fossils or fossil fragments of bacteria, protists, fungi, animals, and plants (e.g.: starch granules) that can only be seen with a microscope.
Membrane-bound cell organelles that generate most of the chemical energy, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), needed to power the cell’s biochemical reactions. Mitochondria are believed to be endosymbionts that were originally prokaryotic cells that became incorporated into eukaryotic organisms.
Maternally inherited DNA found only in the mitochondria, the energy producing organelles of eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria are thought to descend from symbiotic bacteria that have become part of eukaryotic cells.
|Bacteria, Chromosome, Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), Eukaryotes|
The phenomenon whereby one organism produces molecules that are identical or very similar to those of another organism (such as its host). Parasites and pathogens repeatedly evolve molecular mimicry for host manipulation and immune evasion.
|Host, Parasite, Pathogen|
A group of two or more atoms covalently bonded together to form the smallest fundamental unit of a chemical compound that can take part in a chemical reaction.
A simple sugar; the most basic unit of a carbohydrate.
The rate of disease in a population (as opposed to mortality, which is death rate).
The shape or form (outward appearance) of an organism. The branch of biology interested in the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
The sub-discipline of linguistics concerned with the structure and parts of words (stems, root words, prefixes, and suffixes), how words are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language. Parts of speech, intonation and stress, and contextual pronunciation and meaning are aspects of Morphology.
Conscious understanding and realization of personal mortality.
The part of the cerebral cortex in the brain where the nerve impulses originate that initiate voluntary muscular activity.
A part of the nervous system that carries signals from the brain to skeletal muscle and smooth muscle.
The part of the nervous system that controls voluntary movement.
|Motor theory of vocal learning||
A theory that proposes the brain pathways that control the learning and production of song and speech were derived from adjacent motor brain pathways.
|Mousterian (Mode 3)||
A stone tool type characterized by hand- axes, scrapers, triangle points, and denticulates (a stone tool with edges of multiple notched shapes, or teeth) produced using a prepared core (i.e. Levallois Technique) and is most associated with Neanderthals. ~315 - 30 kya.
A slimy or gooey substance (hydrated bio-gel) produced by mucous membranes and glands for to lubricate or protect the body. The substance we refer to as “snot” or “boogers” are the mucus inside your nose that traps dirt and germs before they can enter further into your body and do you harm. Sneezing expels these invaders from your body but also propels them out towards other unsuspecting victims.
A group of genetic diseases that cause progressive weakness and loss of muscle mass.
An auditory form of art composed of pitch (melody and harmony), rhythm (tempo, meter, articulation), dynamics (loudness/softness), timbre and texture.
|Musicality (in humans)||
A natural, spontaneously developing sensitivity to, knowledge of, or talent for music based on and constrained by our biological and cognitive system, which is then culturally informed and reinforced.
Change in a DNA or RNA sequence.
|Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), Indel, Ribonucleic acid (RNA), Silent Mutations, Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP), Synonymous/Non-synonymous Mutations|
Million years ago.
The pathogenic bacteria that causes tuberculosis.
An insulating layer of fatty tissue (wrapped cell membrane) that protects nerve cells, especially their axons.
|Axon (nerve fiber)|
Untrue stories that both the teller and listener usually believe to be true.
|N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac)||
The most common sialic acid in most vertebrates and was first discovered in animal saliva and brains.
|N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc)||
A common variant of sialic acid in many vertebrates that is not made by humans but can be incorporated from diets rich in red meat.
|Naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber)||
A burrowing rodent endemic to parts of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Somalia, and is the only mammal with cold-blooded-like body temperature regulation and eusocial behavior.
The factual or fictional representation of a coherent particular sequence of events, usually involving some agency and purpose.
|Natural Antibodies (NAb)||
A type of antibody that exists in the absence of active immunization via infection and/or contact with fetal antigens during pregnancy as a first line of defense until a specific antibody response is mounted.
An extinct Eurasian hominin species that existed from 500-30 kya and interbred with ancient humans and Denisovans.
|Denisovans, Hominin, Species|
A response or behavior that is strengthened by stopping, removing, or avoiding a negative outcome or aversive stimulus.
The failure to provide for the development of the child in all spheres: health, education, emotional development, nutrition, shelter, and safe living conditions (including protecting the child from harm). It is the most common form of child maltreatment. In rodents, neglect it is similarly defined as inconsistent care, failure to group displaced infants in the nest, infant avoidance and failure to protect infants from harm or potential harm.
A part of the cerebral cortex concerned with sight, hearing, and touch in mammals, regarded as the most recently evolved part of the cortex.
The new growth of cells proliferating without regard to stop signals and with attendant new blood vessels that forms a neoplasm.
A tumor mass, either benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer), that is composed of cells that have lost their regulatory checks and multiply without control or do not undergo pre-programmed cell death.
The delay or slowing of development. Compared to other primates, humans are considered neotenous due to the retention of physiological traits typical of juveniles such as facial features (globular skull shape, thinness of skull bones, reduction of browridge, flattened face, larger eyes), limb length ratio, and behavior.
|Nerve||A bundle of fibers that transmits impulses of sensation to the brain or spinal cord, and impulses from these to the muscles and organs.|
The network of nerve cells and fibers that transmits nerve impulses between parts of the body.
A neural circuit is a functional entity of interconnected neurons that is able to regulate its own activity using a feedback loop.
|Neural progenitor cell (NPC)||
Cells that are capable of dividing a limited number of times and have the capacity to differentiate into a restricted repertoire of neuronal and glial cell types.
|Glia (neuroglia), Neuron|
|Neural stem cell (NSC)||
A self-renewing, multipotent cell that generates the neurons and glia of the nervous system of all animals during embryonic development. Some persist in the adult vertebrate brain and continue to produce neurons throughout life.
|Glia (neuroglia), Nervous system, Neuron|
The study of the morphology, behavior, and other qualities of the nervous system.
The process by which neural stem cells produce neurons.
|Neural stem cell (NSC)|
The study of the role of genetics in the development and function of the nervous system.
A branch of linguistics that examines the connection between language and the structure and functioning of the brain.
Relating to the anatomy, functions, and organic disorders of nerves and the nervous system.
A subset of neurotransmitters that regulate diverse populations of other neurons.
A specialized cell that transmits nerve impulses and forms synapses with other cells.
The ability of the brain to form and reorganize synaptic connections through growth and reorganization. These changes include new neural connections and cortical remapping resulting from learning, environmental influences, practice, and psychological stress.