HLA-DRB1*11 (major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 1 allele 11 )

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Human Uniqueness Compared to "Great Apes": 
Likely Difference
Human Universality: 
Population Universal (Some Individuals Everywhere)
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The major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 1 allele 11 (HLA-DRB1*11) has an important role in the primate immune system as it presents foreign antigens to T-cells. This particular allele is human lineage specific although polymorphic in the human population. The presence of this allele has been associated with many disease protective effects, including but not limited to, development of asthma, juvenile arthritis, multiple sclerosis and liver damage from hepatitis C infection. While the implications for this allele in the human population are unknown, they may have to do with the protective effects mentioned.


Timing of appearance of the difference in the Hominin Lineage as a defined date or a lineage separation event. The point in time associated with lineage separation events may change in the future as the scientific community agrees upon better time estimates. Lineage separation events are defined in 2017 as:

  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and old world monkeys was 25,000 - 30,000 thousand (25 - 30 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and chimpanzees was 6,000 - 8,000 thousand (6 - 8 million) years ago
  • the emergence of the genus Homo was 2,000 thousand (2 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and neanderthals was 500 thousand years ago
  • the common ancestor of modern humans was 100 - 300 thousand years ago

Definite Appearance (Lineage Separation Event): 
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Genetics Topic Attributes
Gene symbols follow the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee standard.
Type of Human-Specific Changes
Gene Conversion


  1. Protective effect of HLA-DRB1 11 and predisposition of HLA-C 04 in the development of severe liver damage in Brazilian patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection., Marangon, A V., Silva G F., de Moraes C F. V., Grotto R M. T., Pardini M I. M. C., de Pauli D S., Visentainer J E. L., Sell A M., and Moliterno R A. , Scand J Immunol, 10/2012, Volume 76, Issue 4, p.440-7, (2012)
  2. Association of HLA DRB1 alleles with juvenile idiopathic arthritis in Mexicans., Silva-Ramirez, B, Cerda-Flores R M., Rubio-Pérez N, Vargas-Alarcón G, Pérez-Hérnández N, Granados-Arriola J, and Burgos-Vargas R , Clin Exp Rheumatol, 01/2010, Volume 28, Issue 1, p.124-7, (2010)
  3. Human leukocyte antigen type and progression from onset of symptoms to development of asthma., Martyn, M. B., Molis W., Jacobson R. M., Poland G. A., Weaver A. L., and Juhn Y. J. , Allergy Asthma Proc, 03/2010, Volume 31, Issue 2, p.120-5, (2010)
  4. HLA-DRB1* allele-associated genetic susceptibility and protection against multiple sclerosis in Brazilian patients., Kaimen-Maciel, Damacio R., Reiche Edna Maria V., Borelli Sueli D., Morimoto Helena K., Melo Fabiano C., Lopes Josiane, Dorigon Raffael F., Cavalet Christiane, Yamaguchi Elton M., Silveira Thiago L., et al. , Mol Med Rep, 11/2009, Volume 2, Issue 6, p.993-8, (2009)
  5. Full-length sequence analysis of the HLA-DRB1 locus suggests a recent origin of alleles., von Salomé, J., Gyllensten U., and Bergström T. F. , Immunogenetics, 04/2007, Volume 59, Issue 4, p.261-71, (2007)